Our goal in project 4 is to determine how the control of breathing changes in response to lung impairments induced by high oxygen exposure or lung inflammation during early development. Our collaborators in the lab of Dr. Ganesh Konduri have recently shown that Rat pups exposed from birth to day 10 of life in 90% oxygen, and thereafter until day 21 are normoxic show impaired alveoli formation and increased markers of ER stress and downstream effectors. In the same publication (R.J. Teng et al., 2017: PMID: 28213471) they also showed caffeine attenuated the detrimental effects of perinatal hyperoxia through an attenuation of ER stress. Our onbectives in this study is to determine the effects on the control of breathing in this and other rat models of lung dysfunction. measure eupneic ventilation and responses to hypoxia at 10, 12, 14, 17, 21, and 40 days of age. In parallel studies in the lab of our collaborator Dr. Wong-Riley, optical density measurements are being made to quantify changes in neurochemicals and receptors in multiple brainstem nuclei at the same ages in hyperoxia treated pups and normoxic controls. This project will be updated as new data are available. This work is funded by the children's Research institute at the medical college of wisconsin.